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PINES Copy Cataloging for Multipart Works: Continuing resources, series, and multipart monographs
Continuing resources are publications in any physical or electronic format which are issued with no predetermined ending intended by the publisher. They usually have some form of numbering or chronological designation. Types of continuing resources are serial and integrating resources. Serials are issued in discrete parts while integrating resources do not generally have separate issues, but are updated with new content indefinitely. Continuing resources can be in any physical or online format including print, visual or sound recordings, maps, kits, websites, online and streaming resources.
- Successively issued.
- Intended by the publisher to continue indefinitely – no designated end of publication.
- Usually have numbering or chronological designation.
- In any medium or format.
- “A mode of issuance of a manifestation issued in successive parts, usually bearing numbering, that has no predetermined conclusion.” (RDA 1.1.3 Mode of Issuance, RDA Toolkit).
- “A serial includes a periodical, monographic series, newspaper, etc. Reproductions of serials and resources that exhibit characteristics of serials, such as successive issues, numbering, and frequency, but whose duration is limited, such as newsletters of events, are also included.” (RDA Glossary, RDA Toolkit).
- Updated with new content integrated into the whole, whether print or website.
- Not discrete, updates are by replacing pages, if print.
- Usually issued as loose-leaf in a binder or binders, if print.
- An online resource updated continuously.
- “A mode of issuance of a manifestation that is added to or changed by means of updates that do not remain discrete but are integrated into the whole. A loose-leaf manual that is updated by means of replacement pages, a website that is updated continuously, etc., are included.” (RDA 1.1.3 Mode of Issuance, RDA Toolkit.)
- “Integrating work: A diachronic work that is planned to be realized by a single expression. Use for: integrating resource.” (RDA Glossary, RDA Toolkit.)
Cataloging basics for Continuing Resources
Determining if an item in hand is a part of a continuing resource can be problematic. But there are attributes that act as clues to help you determine if what you have is a continuing resource or not.
- The title implies continuation (Southern Living Gardening Annual, Yearbook of the Psi Corps, Biennial report on fishing in Georgia)
- Presence of an ISSN (International Standard Serial Number) is not definitive, since some issues may not contain the ISSN and an ISSN of a companion publication can be present on a monograph. ISSNs are in the format 1234-5678.
- The item title contains a statement of frequency or a numeric or chronological designation (for example: 2295 Proceedings of the United Confederation of Planets, Yachting monthly). However, since the same designations can be part of a title of a one-time report or multipart items about or from a single event, or on sequentially issued publications from a project with a finite duration, use caution when applying this criterion. Examine the publication for other clues to its origin and purpose.
- A stated frequency of publication somewhere on the piece - in the title proper, in the preface, on the cover, etc.
MARC bibliographic record characteristics
The list below is intended as a reference for copy cataloging to help identify the correct serial record for your item(s). It is not an exhaustive list and not all fields defined below will be in every record. It should guide you in matching and in checking for typos and other obvious errors. Take care in editing serial records.
For complete MARC tags, subfields, and codes and MARC fields see OCLC bibliographic formats and standards and Library of Congress MARC standards.
BLvl: Bibliographic Level
Serial = s
Integrating resource = i
S/L (Successive/Latest entry): Successive entry cataloging: code “0”
Freq (Frequency of publication): Varies
Regl (Regularity): Varies
SrTp (Type of continuing resource): Varies
DtSt (Publication status)
c = currently published.
d = no longer published or the title has changed.
u = unknown publication status.
Dates: Beginning and ending dates of publication.
022: ISSN (International Standard Serial Number)
Examples: 2157-0396, 1546-511X
222: Key title - a unique title assigned to a continuing resource (serial or integrating resource) in conjunction with an International Standard Serial Number
247: A former title proper - used when one biblopgraphic record represents all former titles proper of a continuing resource (serial or integrating resource).
310: current publication frequency
Examples: Continually updated.
Monthly (except May and July)
362: Dates of Publication and/or Sequential Designation
500: General notes
Accept 500 notes that record subsequent publishing information such as new publishers, place, etc.
Examples of common notes:
Title from caption.
Description based on: Vol. 10, no. 9 (May 1997); title from cover.
Title from journal home page.
Published: Dalaria, Betazed, 2366-.
Publisher: Blackwell, <1991- >
Publishers: J. Haway, <1842>; J. & W. Horne, <1847>
515: Numbering Peculiarities Note
Examples: Some issues lack volume numbering.
Volumes 12 and 13 combined
Volumes for the 8th-19th annual meetings called also volumes 7-17 (9th and 10th issues combined as volume 8).
780 Preceding Entry. Information about the direct proceeding title.
780 00 |t Not man apart |x 0194-1062 |w (DLC) 76025931 |w (OCoLC)1760818
785 Succeeding Entry. Information about the direct successor title.
785 01 |tFriends of the Earth. |t Annual report |w (DLC)sn 95033798 |w (OCoLC)33836002
Continuing resources examples
|Southern Living … annual recipes||PINES TCN ocm0654584|
|Journal (Merritt International Family)||PINES TCN ocm0654584|
|Georgia forms, legal & business||PINES TCN ocm32134024|
|Official compilation, rules and regulations of the State of Georgia||OCLC #1010286|
Titles or the issuing body of a continuing resource can change over the life of the resource, resulting in multiple continuing resource records to cover those changes. Use the correct record for your library’s complete holdings, which may mean multiple bibliographic records if the resource changes multiple times across the timespan of a library’s holdings.
For more information on title changes and whether they should result in separate bibliographic records, see
- Changes Affecting the Identification of a Work: Works Issued as Serials RDA 18.104.22.168, RDA Toolkit.
- Changes Affecting the Identification of a Work: Works Issued as Integrating Resources RDA 22.214.171.124, RDA Toolkit
Successive entry is where a different record is used each time a title, corporate body main entry, or uniform title changes. Within the MARC records, the earlier or later title record is noted in a linking 780 or 785 field on each record.
Examples (note where some titles also merged with another title*):
|Civil War times*||1959-1962||OCLC #1554810|
|Civil war times illustrated||1962-2002||OCLC #1554811|
|Civil War times||2002-||OCLC #51269784|
|Needlecraft for today*||1978-1987||OCLC #4348378|
|Needle & thread*||1981-1987||OCLC #7333916|
|American home arts needlecraft for today (Basic ed.)||1987-198u||OCLC #18204689|
|American home arts needlecraft for today (Deluxe ed.)||1987-1988||OCLC #16516551|
|Needle & craft||1989- [current]||OCLC #19278460|
|Not man apart||1970-1990||OCLC #1760818|
|Friends of the earth||1990-2000||OCLC #22753366|
|Earth focus||2000-2001||OCLC #44845920|
|Friends of the earth||2002-[current]||OCLC #50706217|
Multipart monographs or multivolume monographs, have a collective title; but, unlike a series, are a single bibliographic entities issued in multiple physical volumes. Each volume is not considered distinctive enough to stand alone and the collective title is considered appropriate. The title is intended to have a finite number of volumes and is complete as published or expected to be complete, generally within a set time span. The separate parts may be issued all at once, (The World Book Encyclopedia PINES TCN on1198988354, for example) or over time (Handbook of North American Indians PINES TCN ocm13240086).
While other fields may give clues or indicate the presence of multiple volumes, the 300 (physical description) tag is the most dependable field to distinguish a multipart bibliographic record from an individual part record. The |a, the manifestation extent, indicates whether the title is not complete or is complete. Incomplete sets may have an indication of the number of volumes that will make up the complete set, enclosed in <>.
All volumes published:
300 |a 20 volumes : |b color illustrations; |c25 cm
300 |a 3 volumes (x, 5,560 pages) :|b maps ;|c 28 cm
Incomplete, all volumes not yet published, extent left blank:
300 |a volumes : |b illustrations, maps, photographs ; |c 26 cm
Incomplete, all volumes not yet published, expected extent given:
300 |a<5> volumes |b illustrations; |c 24 cm.
Assign a part label for each volume.
A series is a group of monographs with a common or collective title or series statement, for the group/series and unique titles for each publication. These unique publications can be written by the same or different authors. Many series will have an added title page with the series statement and other information pertaining to the series. Series are often based on a common subject (Countries of the world), have a common publisher or issuer (Publications of the University of Georgia), a common format (Harlequin large print), or common author, personal or corporate (Cass, Laurie. Bookmobile cat mystery).
- Series: “A group of separate manifestations related to one another by the fact that each manifestation bears, in addition to its own title proper, a collective title applying to the group as a whole with or without numbering or, a separately numbered sequence of volumes or issues within a series or serial.” (RDA Glossary, RDA Toolkit)
- Series statement: “A statement identifying a series to which a manifestation belongs and a numbering of a manifestation within the series. A series statement may also include information identifying one or more subseries to which the resource being described belongs. A series statement sometimes includes statements of responsibility relating to a series or subseries.” (RDA Glossary, RDA Toolkit).
- Series title page: “An added title page bearing a series title proper and usually, though not necessarily, other information about a series such as statement of responsibility, numeric designation, data relating to publication, title of the manifestation within the series.” (RDA Glossary, RDA Toolkit).
- Series differ from serials in that individual issues have both the collective title and their own individual title. Serials may occasionally have an issue with a distinctive title; but, will usually have the same title for each issue.
- Series are analyzed, meaning each title in the series has a separate bibliographic record. Series can be classed together (all items have the same call number; typically differentiated by the volume number) or separately (each item in the series has a different call number).
- A series title may be located in a variety of places in or on an item. They may be found on a series title page, the book title page, title page verso, colophon, preface, book cover, book spine, or elsewhere.
- If the series is numbered, the numbering should be included in the series statement, along with any designation (vol., number, etc.) that appears with it. Usually, the series number is located near the series title; however, it might also be somewhere else on the item - the spine, title page verso, colophon, or other locations, independent of the title.
- Each record should have series statements that link the record in the catalog, as a result, each record should have a 490 (Series Statement) and 8xx (Series Added Entry) pair. The 490 field is untraced, and needs to be accompanied by an 8xx field, which is the access point. If the series is not traced, or does not have an access point, then only a 490 is necessary in the record. Most series will have the 490/8xx pair.
Examples of 490/8xx pairs
490 1 |a The encyclopedia of musical instruments
800 X1 |a Dearling, Robert, |d 1933- |t Encyclopedia of musical instruments
490 1 |a A bookmobile cat mystery
800 X1 |a Cass, Laurie. |t Bookmobile cat mystery.
490 0 | a MrExcel library
830 X0 |a MrExcel library.
490 1 |a Country comfort cookbook series
830 X0 |a Country comfort.
490 1 |a Publications / the Wormsloe Foundation ; |v v. 15
830 X0 |a Publications (Wormsloe Foundation) ; |v no. 15.
490 1 |a Holidays around the world
830 X0 |a Holidays around the world (National Geographic Society (U.S.))
490 1 |a A world of holidays
830 X0 |a World of holidays
A series-like phrase resembles a series title but is not considered to be one. These phrases may appear in multiple different items, but the decision was made not to index it as distinctive series. Often, a series authority record has been created for these phrases with a 667 containing instructions for how to handle the phrase.
667 Give phrase as a quoted note.
667 Is an imprint, not a series. Give in publication, distribution, etc. area of the record.
667 Give as part of title proper in the 245 subfield a.
In the bibliographic record, the phrase generally appears as a 500 quoted note or less often as an imprint in the 264 field.
500 “Educational software.”
500 “A Charlotte Zolotow book”
264 1 New York : |b TOR, a Tom Doherty Associates Book
Graphic Novels, Comic Books, and Manga
Graphic novels, comic books, manga and all have one thing in common - they tell a story using panels of pictures with dialogue in balloons or captions. They can be serials, series with individual records, or multipart monographs with a single record.
Graphic novels are written in comic book style, and the stories have a definite beginning, middle and end. They may be numbered or unnumbered, and are either bound compilations of previously published comic books or original works (or adaptations) of fiction or nonfiction. They are a narrative in book form expressed with sequential art.
Comic books (or comics) are stories that may continue indefinitely. They are published monthly in magazine form; each issue is numbered sequentially, usually without a unique title.
Manga originally referred to Japanese comics that were illustrated in a black and white style, and read back to front, right to left. They were published weekly or monthly in magazines like Shojo Beat and Shonen Jump. The term now includes: American OEL (original English language), cine-manga, Chinese manhua, Korean manhwa.
Comic strips are a succession of cartoon panels that tell a story. These are the funny pages published weekly in major newspapers since the 1800s. Many popular comic strips have been bound and compiled into books; although they may be found in some graphic novel collections, they are not graphic novels.
Cataloging graphic novels, comic books, and manga
Follow Library of Congress (DLC) practice when you find multiple records for a title in OCLC. Records input by DLC can be identified by 040 (cataloging source) |a (original cataloging agency) DLC. Best is a record with 040 |a DLC |c (Transcribing agency) DLC.
040 |a DLC |c XXX
040 |a DLC |c DLC
040 |a XXX |c DLC
040 |a XXX |c DLC |d DLC
My hero academia / story & art Kohei Horikoshi story & art Kohei Horikoshi. PINES TCN ocn917905307.
Yuri is my job! Miman ; translation, Diana Taylor. OCLC #1091903337.
Berserk / by Kentaro Miura ; translation, Jason DeAngelis with Duane Johnson. OCLC #1050142713.
The demon prince of Momochi House. Volume 15 / story & art by Aya Shouoto ; translation, JN Productions. OCLC #1141781042.
Individual records in a series
If the work has a common title, volume number, and a part title use an individual record in a series. Individual records should have a 490/8xx pair for the collective, series title.
Skyward. Writer, Joe Henderson ; art & cover, Lee Garbett
Skyward. Volume three. Fix the world. OCLC #1163935568.
Skyward. Volume two. Here there be dragonflies. OCLC #1091990274.
Pokemon adventures story by Hidenori Kusaka ; art by Mato ; English adaptation by Gerard Jones.
Pokemon adventures. . Issue 5. The Gastly ghosts. PINES TCN ocm43554530.
Pokemon adventures. Yellow caballero. Part 4, issue 3. The gym leaders’ alliance. OCLC #47211538.
Hawkeye. Matt Fraction, writer ; David Aja, artist
Hawkeye. Vol.1. My life as a weapon PINES TCN ocn810122786.
Hawkeye. Vol.4. Rio Bravo PINES TCN ocn890161043'
If the work has a common title and volume number without a part title and is a graphic novel or manga, use a multipart record. Assign a part label for each volume.
March written by John Lewis and Andrew Aydin ; art by Nate Powell. PINES TCN ocn855378172.
One-Punch Man story by One ; art by Yusuke Murata. PINES TCN on1089182448.
Blue exorcist Kazue Kato ; translation & English adaptation, John Werry. PINES TCN ocn722851188.
If the item is a comic book, and no DLC record is present, use a serial record for the title. Manga titles in their original form and not rebound as graphic novels will also be on serial records. Assign a part label for each volume.
Batman. New York, N.Y. : Detective Comics, ©1940-2011. PINES TCN ocm09181437.
Archie. St. Louis, Mo. : Archie Comic Publications, 1959- PINES TCN ocm08968347.
Superman. New York, N.Y. : DC Comics, 1987- OCLC #14907024.
Justice League of America. New York, NY : DC Comics, 2006-2011. OCLC #216931623
Shonen jump. San Francisco, CA : Viz Communications, 2003- PINES TCN ocm51489838.
Resources and References
Association for Library Collections & Technical Services. 2020. Continuing Resources (CRS)
Association for Library Collections & Technical Services. 2007, rev. edition. Differences between, changes within: guidelines on when to create a new record.
Conway, Ellen. 2019. Minerva Guidelines for cataloging graphic novels.
CONSER. 2021. CONSER Cataloging manual CCM.
CONSER Cataloging Manual. “Module 16 When to create a new description”
Cooperative Computer Services. Multiple records vs. single records.
Cooperative Computer Services.Graphic novels.
Fee, William T. B. 2012.Where is the Justice…League? (Powerpoint slides)
Glick, Fran. 2012.Graphic novels (Powerpoint slides)
Goldsmith, Francisca. 2005. Graphic novels now: building, managing, and marketing a dynamic collection. Chicago: American Library Association.
Government Printing Office. Federal Depository Library Program. August 15, 2018. Superintendent of Documents Classification Guidelines: Monographic series
Irvin, Morris. 2011. Graphic novels: an introduction. (Powerpoint slides).
Jones, Maya, & Miller, Heather. 2007.Graphic Novels: Help! I don’t know what I’m doing. (PowerPoint slides)
Library of Congress. March 13, 2020. MARC standards.
Library of Congress. Rev. July 2013. Descriptive Cataloging Manual.
Library of Congress. Program for Cooperative Cataloging. January 21, 2020 revision. Conser Standard Record (CSR) RDA Metadata Application Profile.
Library of Congress. Program or Cooperative Cataloging. 2011 Revision. Integrating Resources: a cataloging manual
Library of Congress. Program for Cooperative Cataloging: Standing Committee on Training. December 2015. Series Statements and Series Authority Records Session 10: Multipart Monographs.
Library of Congress. Program for Cooperative Cataloging: Standing Committee on Training. 2011. Series Training for PCC Participants: Series statements and Series Authority records.
Mills, Jared. 2010. Everything you always wanted to know about graphic novels, but were afraid to ask. (Powerpoint slides)
North Carolina State. University Libraries. Serial Record Changes Overview (Publisher Changes, Format Changes, Ceased Titles, Title Changes)
OCLC. 2020.Bibliographic Formats and Standards
OCLC. 2020.Bibliographic Formats and Standard: Special Cataloging Guidelines: Integrating resources.
Multi-part functionality in PINES
RDA 1.1.3 Mode of Issuance,RDA Toolkit
Reitz, Joan M. January 10, 2013. Online Dictionary for Library and Information Science.
University of California, San Diego. TPOT. Revised 12/6/2019.Cheat sheet for RDA serials cataloging
University of Florida. George A. Smathers Libraries. January 2019. Do I need a new serial record? Major changes - title changes.